MAMMAL-FINDING IN THE ABA AREA
Brian W. Keelan
There is relatively little information on where to find specific mammal species in the American Birding Association (ABA) area (essentialy the continental U.S. and Canada), at least compared to that available for birds, though ABA bird-finding guides often have a section on mammals in the back, which can be quite helpful. As I was finishing this file, I came across Jon Hall's website, which has fascinating information on finding mammals worldwide. I have not had time to review this site in detail but clearly there is a wealth of information in it and its associated blog. This webpage contains suggestions for locating some mammal species based almost entirey on personal experience. With few exceptions, I have included only species for which I know one or more publicly accessible locations where I believe there is a reasonable chance of relocating the species. Many species are not included because they are common enough that an active birder is likely to encounter them without making a special search. I have also added comments when a species has both native and introduced populations in the ABA area. When coordinates are given for a location, the format is "latitude, longitude" in decimal degrees. Coordinates in this format can be cut and pasted into the search field of Google Maps without any further editing, to see the locations in map or satellite views. The datum is always NAD83/WGS84 (these differ by only about 3 feet at present). ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF SPECIES WITH SUGGESTED LOCATIONS Didelphimorphia  Opossums  Virginia Opossum [Didelphis virginiana] Common and widespread in the SE U.S. Note that this species is introduced in the Pacific states. In the ABA area, it is native east of the Rockies, and in isolated areas of SE Arizona, SW Colorado, and central New Mexico. Insectivora  Shrews  Cinereus Shrew [Sorex cinereus] Southeastern Shrew [Sorex longirostris] American Pygmy Shrew [Sorex hoyi] Long-tailed Shrew [Sorex dispar] Smoky Shrew [Sorex fumeus] Gaspe Shrew [Sorex gaspensis] Arctic Shrew [Sorex arcticus] Maritime Shrew [Sorex maritimensis] Alaska Tiny Shrew [Sorex yukonicus] Tundra Shrew [Sorex tundrensis] Pribilof Island Shrew [Sorex pribilofensis] Barren Ground Shrew [Sorex ugyunak] American Water Shrew [Sorex palustris] Marsh Shrew [Sorex bendirei] Rohwer's Shrew [Sorex rohweri] Saint Lawrence Island Shrew [Sorex jacksoni] Prairie Shrew [Sorex haydeni] Dwarf Shrew [Sorex nanus] Merriam's Shrew [Sorex merriami] Arizona Shrew [Sorex arizonae] Preble's Shrew [Sorex preblei] Mount Lyell Shrew [Sorex lyelli] Inyo Shrew [Sorex tenellus] Dusky Shrew [Sorex monticolus] Ornate Shrew [Sorex ornatus] Baird's Shrew [Sorex bairdi] New Mexico Shrew [Sorex neomexicanus] Fog Shrew [Sorex sonomae] Vagrant Shrew [Sorex vagrans] Pacific Shrew [Sorex pacificus] Trowbridge's Shrew [Sorex trowbridgei] North American Least Shrew [Cryptotis parva] Northern Short-tailed Shrew [Blarina brevicauda] Eliot's Short-tailed Shrew [Blarina hylophaga] Southern Short-tailed Shrew [Blarina carolinensis] Everglades Short-tailed Shrew [Blarina peninsulae] Desert Shrew [Notiosorex crawfordi] Cockrum's Gray Shrew [Notiosorex cockrumi] Moles  Shrew-Mole [Neurotrichus gibbsii] Townsend's Mole [Scapanus townsendii] Broad-footed Mole [Scapanus latimanus] Coast Mole [Scapanus orarius] Eastern Mole [Scalopus aquaticus] Hairy-tailed Mole [Parascalops breweri] Star-nosed Mole [Condylura cristata] Chiroptera  Leaf-chinned Bats  Peters's Ghost-faced Bat [Mormoops megalophylla] New World Leaf-nosed Bats  California Leaf-nosed Bat [Macrotus californicus] There is a roost in the Stonehouse (Hodge) Mine, Mule Mtns., 13 air mi SW of Blythe, Riverside Co., CA. We drove to 33.51067, -114.79280, where we camped on BLM land. We were able to record and see this species from that spot in October, without approaching the mine entrances or disturbing the animals in any way. This may be a year-round roost. We also had a few Cave Myotis here; in warmer months, that species could be more numerous. To reach the mine, turn off the Bradshaw Trail at 33.49138,-114.76229 and proceed NW. In 2014, the road had serious washouts, but there were detours around them navigable by high-clearance vehicles. Turn left after about one mile and continue WNW about 1.4 miles to the end of the road. There are several left turns leaving the road near the one-mile point; I believe this was the first of them, and the others dead end quickly. If you choose to hike the two miles one-way from the first of the washouts, take care on the hike back, as the road washout drop-offs are dangerous. Mexican Long-tongued Bat [Choeronycteris mexicana] See Lesser Long-nosed Bat. Mexican Long-nosed Bat [Leptonycteris nivalis] Lesser Long-nosed Bat [Leptonycteris yerbabuenae] This species is regularly seen at hummingbird feeders at Cave Creek Ranch, near Portal, AZ, in summer and fall (31.90443, -109.15596). Mexican Long-tongued Bat is also possible here. Recordings or flash photographs may be needed to distinguish these species, as their visits to feeders can be brief, at necessarily low light levels. Hairy-legged Vampire Bat [Diphylla ecaudata] Vesper Bats  Eastern Red Bat [Lasiurus borealis] Western Red Bat [Lasiurus blossevillii] Seminole Bat [Lasiurus seminolus] Northern Yellow Bat [Lasiurus intermedius] Southern Yellow Bat [Lasiurus ega] Western Yellow Bat [Lasiurus xanthinus] Hoary Bat [Lasiurus cinereus] Silver-haired Bat [Lasionycteris noctivagans] Spotted Bat [Euderma maculata] This generally rare bat, principally of the Great Basin, occurs in the Owens River Gorge, northeast of Bishop, CA. The most accessible location where they can occasionally be recorded (and even heard with the unaided ear) is near the Long Valley Dam, forming the south end of Crowley Lake, and situated at the north end of the gorge. We like to park just below the dam at 37.58741, -118.70121. Once, while waiting for it to get dark here, a Badger walked out into the road, soaking wet from wading in the Owens River. Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat [Corynorhinus rafinesquii] Townsend's Big-eared Bat [Corynorhinus townsendii] This species roosts in the large mining building in Kentucky Mine Historical Park, in Sierra City, Sierra Co., CA (39.57259,-120.62196). They may be visible on the regularly scheduled tours (at the time of this writiung, twice per day, Wednesday through Sunday, from Memorial Day to Labor Day), and/or permission may be granted for individuals to view them at other times, but either way, the park should be contacted ahead to make arrangements, making clear that you are particularly interested in seeing the bats. Allen's Big-eared Bat [Idionycteris phyllotis] Pallid bat [Antrozous pallidus] Southwestern Myotis [Myotis auriculus] Fringed Myotis [Myotis thysanodes] Long-eared Myotis [Myotis evotis] Keen's Myotis [Myotis keenii] Northern Myotis [Myotis septentrionalis] California Myotis [Myotis californicus] Western Small-footed Myotis [Myotis ciliolabrum] Dark-nosed Small-footed Myotis [Myotis melanorhinus] Long-legged Myotis [Myotis volans] Cave Myotis [Myotis velifer] Little Brown Myotis [Myotis lucifugus] Arizona Myotis [Myotis occultus] Yuma Myotis [Myotis yumanensis] Gray Myotis [Myotis grisescens] Eastern Small-footed Myotis [Myotis leibii] Southeastern Myotis [Myotis austroriparius] Indiana Myotis [Myotis sodalis] Western Pipistrelle [Pipistrellus hesperus] Also known as Canyon Bat, this species is easily recorded and quite easily seen at Bear Gulch Reservoir, Pinnacless NP (see Greater Bonneted Bat). These tiny bats with moth-like flight often start foraging well before sunset, and usually can be seen low over the water at the SE end of the dam. Here they can be well below eye level, and so be observed against the dark water, making it easier see the dark mask contrasting with the otherwise yellowish pelage. Eastern Pipistrelle [Perimyotis subflavus] Big Brown Bat [Eptesicus fuscus] Evening Bat [Nycticeius humeralis] Free-tailed Bats  Mexican Free-tailed Bat [Tadarida brasiliensis] Carlsbad Cavern NP, NM is the most famous location for seeing this species, though Kickapoo Caverns SP, TX allows a much more intimate experience. There are also roosts in downtown Austin and Las Vegas; inquire locally. Pocketed Free-tailed Bat [Nyctinomops femorosaccus] There is a large roost at Split Mountain, on the Fish Creek Wash jeep trail, in Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, San Diego Co., CA. A four-wheel-drive vehicle is needed to drive to the site. But it can also be hiked from Split Mountain Rd. at 33.03893, -116.09689, from which point it is about 3 miles one-way in soft sand. We recorded at 32.99697, -116.11559, but you should not camp here in the canyon because of the danger of flash flooding; there is a raised camping area just east of the east end of the canyon, on the south side of the wash (entrance at 33.02381, -116.11007). Greater Bonneted Bat also occurs here. When we visited in June, the free-tails were flying before sunset. Big Free-tailed Bat [Nyctinomops macrotis] Greater Bonneted Bat [Eumops perotis] Also known as Western Mastiff, this species, the larget bat in the ABA area, can reliably be recorded, and usually heard with the unaided ear, at Bear Gulch Reservoir, Pinnacles NP, San Benito Co., CA. We record at the SE end of the dam, at 36.47271, -121.18735. It is about a 40 minute hike to this site from the small parking lot at the end of the main road on the east side of the park (36.47853,-121.18386). Additional parking is located 300 yards back down the road. A trail map is recommended, and a good light is needed to hike back down the trail in the dark. There are 16 species of bats known from the park, and we have recorded 12 species at this location; about 7 species is average for an evening. The other species are: Western Pipistrelle (abundant), Mexican Free-tailed Bat (common), California Myotis (common), Yuma Myotis (common), Townsend's Big-eared Bat (common but with a soft call and so often not recorded), Dark-nosed Small-footed Myotis, Pallid Bat, Big Brown Bat, Silver-haired Bat (fall), Hoary Bat (fall), and Fringed Myotis. Another excellent location for recording bats in Pinnacles NP is east of the entrance to the Balconies Cave, at 36.50218, -121.20020. This is a one-hour hike from the Old Pinnacles trailhead parking lot (36.4949,-121.17298), on a good trail; the walk back can be good for other mammals such as Gray Fox. We have recorded 13 species of bats here, adding Long-eared Myotis, Little Brown Bat, and Long-legged Myotis to the reservoir list, but not including Pallid Bat nor Fringed Myotis. For another Greater Bonneted Bat location, see Pocketed Free-tailed Bat. Underwood's Bonneted Bat [Eumops underwoodi] Florida Bonneted Bat [Eumops floridanus] Pallas's Mastiff Bat [Molossus molossus] Xenarthra  Armadillos  Nine-banded Armadillo [Dasypus novemcinctus] Lagomorpha  Pikas  Collared Pika [Ochotona collaris] This far northern species can be seen in rock talus along Windy Pass, located at Kilometer 153 on the Dempster Highway, in the Yukon Territory. If you park at 65.06319,-138.2632, there is suitable habitat just to the SE and SW. Pika calls, some sapsucker-like, carry well, making it easy to underestimate how far away the animal is. Traveling the Dempster Highway to Inuvik, Northwest Territories, is a phenomenal natural history experience! Other mammals we saw along this road include Dall Sheep and Red Fox, and we found tracks of Wolverine. American Pika [Ochotona princeps] Hares and Rabbits  Mountain Cottontail [Sylvilagus nuttallii] This is the only cottontail in Lava Beds NM, Siskiyou Co., CA. We have seen it on the trail between the campground and the visitors' center (41.71564, -121.50829). Lava Beds NM is a marvelous park to visit, and a good place to record bats. Another good area is in the grassy habitat north of the UC Crooked Creek Research Station buildings (37.50031, -118.17223), in the White Mountains, Inyo NF, CA. The station is about a mile east of the road to the Schulmann grove of Bristlecone Pines. Permission would be needed from Research Station personnel to walk in this area, though some habitat is visible from the public forest service road. The White Mountains also have White-tailed Jackrabbit and Uinta and Panamint Chipmunks. Desert Cottontail [Sylvilagus audubonii] Manzano Mountain Cottontail [Sylvilagus cognatus] Robust Cottontail [Sylvilagus robustus] Brush Rabbit [Sylvilagus bachmani] The UCSC Arboretum (36.98381,-122.06106, 440'), in Santa Cruz, CA is a good place to see this species, because it often feeds in more open areas here than is typically the case elsewhere. You should arrive at opening and quickly walk the trails, before other visitors have done so. Also check the grassy slope visible from the gate at very end of the entrance road. The Arboretum is also an outstanding location for Allen's Hummingbird. Swamp Rabbit [Sylvilagus aquaticus] Marsh Rabbit [Sylvilagus palustris] This rabbit is fairly easily seen by driving the road through Everglades National Park at first light. It often feeds in the many miles of narrow grassy strips along the edges of the road. Suitable habitat begins around 25.39604,-80.57758, just before reaching the visitor center. Eastern Cottontail [Sylvilagus floridanus] New England Cottontail [Sylvilagus transitionalis] Appalachian Cottontail [Sylvilagus obscurus] Pygmy Rabbit [Brachylagus idahoensis] This elusive species is said to be regularly seen in in the immediate vicinity of the visitor center in Fossil Butte NM, WY (41.83673,-110.77122). Chances are best at dawn and dusk, when they may forage in the open, even coming into the parking lot. Snowshoe Hare [Lepus americanus] Alaskan Hare [Lepus othos] Arctic Hare [Lepus arcticus] Antelope Jackrabbit [Lepus alleni] There is a decent chance of seeing this grassland species in, or on the road to, Chino Canyon, 10 air miles SSE of Green Valley. Bird finding guides to southeast Arizona give directions to this locality; high-clearance vehicles can reach and be parked at 31.72578,-110.94658, just below the distinctive Elepant Head formation to the east. Black-tailed Antelope Squirel can also be found here. White-tailed Jackrabbit [Lepus townsendii] Black-tailed Jackrabbit [Lepus californicus] White-sided Jackrabbit [Lepus callotis] Rodentia  Mountain Beaver  Sewellel [Aplodontia rufa] Squirrels  Alaska Marmot [Marmota broweri] Yellow-bellied Marmot [Marmota flaviventris] Hoary Marmot [Marmota caligata] A good place to look for this marmot is the Frozen Lake Overlook (46.91807, -121.66411), about one mile west of the Sunrise Visitor Center (46.91449,-121.64265), in Mt. Rainier NP, WA. Cascade Golden-mantled Squirrel and Yellow-Pine Chipmunk can be seen here, too. An excellent 3-mile loop hike, with this location near its midpoint, can be done from the Visitor Center. Take a short connector trail north to the Sourdough Ridge Trail, then proceed west to Frozen Lake. At the end of the lake, return via the Wonderland Trail, heading back to the east. This leads to Sunrise Park Rd., which continues east to the Visitor Center. Olympic Marmot [Marmota olympus] Found in the high country of Olympic NP, WA. One location is along Obstruction Point Road, a narrow dirt road, e.g., at 47.92279, -123.39961. Another site is at Hurricane Hill (47.98968, -123.52585), which is a 1.5-mile hike one-way from parking at the end of paved Hurricane Ridge Rd. (47.97649,-123.51779). Vancouver Island Marmot [Marmota vancouverensis] Woodchuck [Marmota monax] Eastern Gray Squirrel [Sciurus carolinensis] Common from the Great Plains east; widely introduced farther west, where, in some places, it could be confused with Western Gray Squirrel. Eastern Fox Squirrel [Sciurus niger] Fairly widespread in the east but birders are especially likely to see it in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, e.g., at Bentsen SP and Santa Ana NWR. Introduced in the Pacific States. Mexican Fox Squirrel [Sciurus nayaritensis] This squirrel of extremely limited distribution in the U.S., seems uncommon in Cave Creek Canyon, in the Chiricahua Mtns., near Portal, AZ. Abert's Squirrel [Sciurus aberti] Found in mid- to high-elevation coniferous forests in the Rockies. The particularly spiffy Kaibab Squirrel, a well-marked subspecies, is found on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon (the canyon having isolated it from the rest of the population). The national park campground is a good place to look for it (we saw it at 36.20930, -112.05890). Arizona Gray Squirrel [Sciurus arizonensis] Found locally in Southeast Arizona, especially along Sonoita Creek and in the Santa Rita and Huachuca Mountains. Paton's Yard, near Patagonia AZ, famous for its hummingbird feeders, is one good spot (31.53942, -110.76028). Western Gray Squirrel [Sciurus griseus] Fairly easily seen in oak and mid-elevation coniferous forests in the Pacific States. They are easily seen in Live Oak Campground in Sutter Co., CA (39.27613, -121.63196), which also is an exceptionally good place to hear Coyote while camped there. Although not present here, Eastern Gray Squirrel is widely introduced in urban and coastal locations, however, so in such areas the Western Gray Squirrel should be carefully distinguished by its larger tail and darker gray pelage, devoid of any brown cast. Douglas's Squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii] Readily seen in coniferous forests throughout Yosemite NP, as well as in other Sierran parks. Red Squirrel [Tamiasciurus hudsonicus] Southern Flying Squirrel [Glaucomys volans] Northern Flying Squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus] Gunnison's Prairie Dog [Cynomys gunnisoni] White-tailed Prairie Dog [Cynomys leucurus] We found this species in 2003 along the on-ramp to Rte 70 westbound, from Exit 19 (Routes 340 and 30) for Fruita (39.15659, -108.74104), but are not certain if the colony persists. We have also seen it in nearby Colorado NM, CO. Utah Prairie Dog [Cynomys parvidens] These can be seen in the meadow north of Sunset Campground, in Bryce Canyon NP, UT (37.62833, -112.17300). This species was reintroduced into the park in 1974 after local extirpation. Black-tailed Prairie Dog [Cynomys ludovicianus] Widespread in foothills and prairies in an arc east of the Rockies. An especially nice colony occurs at the Prairie Dog Town, in the South Unit of Roosevelt NP, ND (46.93125,-103.51378). Rock Squirrel [Otospermophilus variegatus] California Ground Squirrel [Otospermophilus beecheyi] Columbian Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus columbianus] Readily seen in the Canadian Rockies parks. One good location father west is the Lightning Lake Trail in Manning Provinvial Park, British Columbia (trailhead = 49.06286, -120.82764). Arctic Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus parryii] Fairly readily seen along tundra roads in Alaska. We saw a black phase individual at Jake's Corner (60.33950, -133.98333), at the intersection of the Alcan Highway with Rte 8 (Tagish Rd), in the Yukon Territory . Belding's Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus beldingi] A widespread species mostly of the Great Basin, but also easily seen in summer at Tuolomne Meadows, Yosemite NP, CA (37.87215, -119.37086). Call is a piercing whistle. Uinta Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus armatus] Hard to miss in Yellowstone NP and the Grand Tetons, WY. Wyoming Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus elegans] Can be seen at the Summit Visitor Center (41.23710, -105.43579) along I-80, east of Laramie, WY, at the exit for the Lincoln Highway (Rte 210). Richardson's Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus richardsonii] This species ocurs in J. Clark Salyer NWR (a marvellous birding location), about 40 air miles northeast of Minot, ND, and 2 miles north of Upham, ND, off Rte. 14. This ground squirrel can be confused with several other species, but at this location, the only possible similar species is the more strongly marked Franklin's Ground Squirrel, which does not exist, anyway. Townsend's Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus townsendii] Merriam's Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus canus] Piute Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus mollis] Washington Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus washingtoni] Idaho Ground Squirrel [Urocitellus brunneus] Franklin's Ground Squirrel [Poliocitellus franklinii] Round-tailed Ground Squirrel [Xerospermophilus tereticaudus] Quite widespread in the warmer deserts. Particularly high numbers occur in agricultural areas near the Salton Sea, with Burrowing Owls. One specific location to check is along Route 78, east of Brawley, CA (32.97470, -115.38149), where they were present in 2013. Mohave Ground Squirrel [Xerospermophilus mohavensis] Spotted Ground Squirrel [Xerospermophilus spilosoma] We have seen this on the Dagger Flat Rd., between Posts 10 and 11 (29.48966, -103.07416), in Big Bend NP, TX; however, the species seems scarce in the park. Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel [Ictidomys tridecemlineatus] Pretty easily seen in Pawnee National Grassland, about 60 miles ENE of Fort Collins, in Weld Co, CO. This is an excellent birding area. Mexican Ground Squirrel [Ictidomys parvidens] A good location for this species is at Washington Ranch (32.11493, -104.45726), near White City, NM. This location is one air mile NE of Rattlesnake Springs, Carlsbad Caverns NP; both are excellent birding locations. This species can also be found while birding in the Lower Rio Grand Valley. Harris's Antelope Squirrel [Ammospermophilus harrisii] This species is fairly common at desert birding locations in Southeast Arizona. One particular site we have seen it is on the Sunset Trail, at the end of the road in Picacho Peak SP, AZ, which is along I-10 between Phoenix and Tucson (32.64759, -111.42922). Texas Antelope Squirrel [Ammospermophilus interpres] We have seen this species on the Pine Tree Loop Trail, starting just east of the Aguirre Springs Campground, in the Organ Mountain National Recreation Area, Dona Ana Co., NM (trailhead = 32.37009, -106.56012), as well as at several locations in Big Bend NP. TX. The Pine Tree Loop Trail is also a good location for Colorado Chipmunk. This is a scenic four-mile round trip hike. White-tailed Antelope Squirrel [Ammospermophilus leucurus] Nelson's Antelope Squirrel [Ammospermophilus nelsoni] This species has a very limited distribution. The best area to look for it is in Carrizo Plain NM, San Luis Obispo Co., CA, where it is fairly easy to see by driving the roads at a modertae speed. A specific, convenient location we have seen them is on Soda Lake Rd. at 35.13936, -119.75726. Kit Fox is found in the same habitats. Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel [Callospermophilus lateralis] Cascade Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel [Callospermophilus saturatus] A good place to look for this is the Frozen Lake Overlook in Mt. Rainier NP, WA; see Hoary Marmot for details. Yellow-Pine Chipmunk can be seen here, too. Least Chipmunk [Tamias minimus] Eastern Chipmunk [Tamias striatus] Cliff Chipmunk [Tamias dorsalis] Birders are likely to encounter this species in Southeast Arizona, where it is the only chipmunk. The yard with feeders at Cave Creek Ranch (31.90443, -109.15596), just outside Portal, AZ, is one place to watch. Red-tailed Chipmunk [Tamias ruficaudus] This species is readily found in Glacier NP, MT, where it only need be distinguished from Least Chipmunk, which is yellow to ochre, rather than bright rusty, on the sides and under the tail. We saw several places along the Going-to-the-Sun Road, including on the Piegan Pass Trail above Siyeh Bend, at 48.69739, -113.65524; and at Avalanche Lake (48.66020, -113.78992). Yellow-Pine Chipmunk [Tamias amoenus] A good place to look for this is the Frozen Lake Overlook in Mt. Rainier NP, WA; see Hoary Marmot for details. Cascade Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel can be seen here, too. The only other chipmunk here is the larger and duller Townsend's Chipmunk, normally found below 5000' elevation. Uinta Chipmunk [Tamias umbrinus] Can be found near timerline, among Bristlecone and Limber Pines, in the White Mountains, Inyo National Forest (e.g., seen along the road to Schulmann Grove at 37.52626, -118.19838). The similar Panamint Chipmunk is found at lower elevations in this mountain range; see the entry under that species. The smaller and paler Least Chipmunk may also occur here. Gray-collared Chipmunk [Tamias cinereicollis] Can be seen at Wrights Cabin Picnic Area, on Route 152 in Gila National Forest, Grant Co., NM (32.91347, -107.77635). This is the only chipmunk species here. Gray-footed Chipmunk [Tamias canipes] Found around the Sunspot Solar Observatory, in Lincoln National Forest, Lincoln Co., NM (32.78756, -105.81771). No other chipmunk species occur here. Colorado Chipmunk [Tamias quadrivittatus] Subspecies australis can be seen on the Pine Tree Loop Trail at Aguirre Springs, in the Organ Mountains, Dona Ana Co., NM (trailhead 32.37034, -106.56133). It is the only chipmunk present at this location, but does not seem common. Texas Antelope Squirrel also can be seen here. This is a scenic four-mile round trip hike. Hopi Chipmunk [Tamias rufus] A split from Colorado Chipmunk, Hopi Chipmunk has less contrasting dorsal stripes and occurs in slickrock areas and pinyon-juniper, typically at lower elevation and in opener areas. We have seen this species at Arches NP, where it is the only chipmunk, and at Capitol Reef NP in Utah, where the distinctive Cliff Chipmunk is uncommon. ; Lodgepole Chipmunk [Tamias speciosus] This is the only chipmunk in higher coniferous forests in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, though it should be distinguished from the larger and much duller Merriam's/California Chipmunk species pair, which overlap at lower elevations in opener habitats. The area near the Champion Lodgepole Pine at Bluff Lake (trailhead 34.21544,-116.97414), on Forest Road 2N11, south of Big Bear Lake in the San Bernardino National Forest, is an excellent spot, which is also good for Williamson's Sapsucker and Dusky Flycatcher. Merriam's Chipmunk [Tamias merriami] Pinnacles NP, CA is fairly good for this species. Open bedrock provides the easiest viewing. The reservoir (including bedrock reaching water level) and the hike thereto is where we have seen and heard them most frequently; see Greater Bonneted Bat for details. No other chimunk occurs in central coastal mountains of California. California Chipmunk [Tamias obscurus] This species, a cryptic split from Merriam's, is best told by range. It can be found most easily in Joshua Tree NP, CA, in campgrounds, picnic areas, and rock outcrops. It is the only chipmunk there. Palmer's Chipmunk [Tamias palmeri] May be conspecific with Uinta Chipmunk. Found only at higher elevations in the Spring (Charleston) Mountains of western Nevada. A good place to look for them is in McWilliams Campground (36.30901, -115.68206). The only other chipmunk in these mountains is the rusty-shouldered Panamint Chipmunk, more typically found in pinyon-juniper; at 8600' elevation, it would be at the upper limit of its elevational range. Panamint Chipmunk [Tamias panamintinus] One good location for this pinyon-juniper specialist is The Grandview Campground (37.33436, -118.18998) in the White Mountains, Inyo NF, along the road to the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest. The similar Uinta Chipmunk is found at higher elevations in this mountain range, especially in Bristlecone and Limber Pines. Panamint Chipmunk is quite rusty on the sides, with a pale gray head; Uinta Chipmunk has a similar pattern but with less contrast -- the sides are duller and the head is darker. Least Chipmunk, which likely occurs here as well, is smaller, quite yellow, and paler on the body. Townsend's Chipmunk [Tamias townsendii] Older books will show Townsend's Chipmunk as ranging south through the northern third of California, but that taxon has now been split into four species with ranges largely separated by large rivers, at least near the coast: from north to south, these are the more narrowly defined Townsend's Chipmunk, from extreme southern British Columbia south to the Rogue River in Oregon; Siskiyou Chipmunk, from the Rogue River south to the Klamath River in California; Shadow Chipmunk, from the Klamath River south to the Eel River; and Yellow-cheeked Chipmunk, from the Eel River south to Bodega, California. A good location for Townsend's Chipmunk sensu stricto is in the Hoh Rain Forest (47.86052,-123.93481), Olympic NP, WA, where it is the only chipmunk. It is much larger and duller than Yellow-Pine chipmunk, the only congener in the region. Yellow-cheeked Chipmunk [Tamias ochrogenys] This species can be seen in Gualala River Redwood Park (entrance near 38.77051, -123.51418), Mendocino Co., CA, where it is the only chipmunk. Sonoma Chipmunk [Tamias sonomae] Can be seen from Fairfax-Bolinas Road, in Marin Co., CA, where it is the only chipmunk species. We have seen it above Alpine Lake at MilePost 8.0 (37.93778, -122.63838) and another 2.3 miles west of there, while walking along the Bolinas Ridge Fire Road, which heads north from Fairfax-Bolinas Rd at 37.9396,-122.65871. Shadow Chipmunk [Tamias senex] This is the only chipmunk at Prairie Creek Campground, Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, Humboldt Co., CA (41.35800, -124.03165), where it is readily seen. The grassy area with the first sites (41.35882,-124.02963) is is an excellent place from which to hear Marbled Murrelet flying out to sea before dawn. Alpine Chipmunk [Tamias alpinus] An excellent place to see this species is Saddlebag Lake, in Inyo National Forest, Mono Co., CA. This lake is just a few miles north of Rte 120, not far east from Tioga Pass, at the boundary of Yosemite NP. There is a trail all the way around the lake, but the west and north sides are best for mammals, as they are more vegetated (trailhead 37.96375, -119.27239). For a small fee, a regularly scheduled boat can be taken across the lake to the north end, halving the walk. Belding's Ground Squirrel, American Pika, and Lodgepole Chipmunk also occur here. The latter is mostly found in the timberline pines, but it can venture out into the alpine areas; however, it has a rusty undertail (ochraceous in Alpine), and is larger, darker, rustier, and more contrasty in appearance. Long-eared Chipmunk [Tamias quadrimaculatus] The Sierras have the highest concentration of chipmunk species anywhere, with eight species known from Yosemite NP! As a central tenet in identifying chipmunks is to visit places that have only one or two species (hence the number of remarks I have made on what species occur in locations mentioned), the Sierras seem intimidating, but they must be braved to add this species to your list. Fortunately, Long-eared Chipmunk is quite distinctive morphologically. It occurs in mid-elevation coniferous forests, with Giant Sequoia groves often being good places to look, e.g., at the Mariposa Grove in Yosemite NP (37.50248,-119.60999). Long-eared Chipmunk is recognized by the combination of large size; bright rusty sides; strong facial stripes but fairly faint body stripes; and large white spots behind decidedly long ears. Siskiyou Chipmunk [Tamias siskiyou] This is the only chipmunk in the Mill Creek Campground (41.70106, -124.09607) in Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park, in far northwest California. Pocket Gophers  Camas Pocket Gopher [Thomomys bulbivorus] Northern Pocket Gopher [Thomomys talpoides] Wyoming Pocket Gopher [Thomomys clusius] Idaho Pocket Gopher [Thomomys idahoensis] Western Pocket Gopher [Thomomys mazama] Botta's Pocket Gopher [Thomomys bottae] Southern Pocket Gopher [Thomomys umbrinus] Townsend's Pocket Gopher [Thomomys townsendii] Mountain Pocket Gopher [Thomomys monticola] Yellow-faced Pocket Gopher [Cratogeomys castanops] Baird's Pocket Gopher [Geomys breviceps] Attwater's Pocket Gopher [Geomys attwateri] Knox Jones's Pocket Gopher [Geomys knoxjonesi] Central Texas Pocket Gopher [Geomys texensis] Plains Pocket Gopher [Geomys bursarius] Texas Pocket Gopher [Geomys personatus] Desert Pocket Gopher [Geomys arenarius] Southeastern Pocket Gopher [Geomys pinetis] Pocket Mice and Kangaroo Rats  White-eared Pocket Mouse [Perognathus alticolus] San Joaquin Pocket Mouse [Perognathus inornatus] Arizona Pocket Mouse [Perognathus amplus] Little Pocket Mouse [Perognathus longimembris] Olive-backed Pocket Mouse [Perognathus fasciatus] Plains Pocket Mouse [Perognathus flavescens] Merriam's Pocket Mouse [Perognathus merriami] Silky Pocket Mouse [Perognathus flavus] Great Basin Pocket Mouse [Perognathus parvus] California Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus californicus] San Diego Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus fallax] Nelson's Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus nelsoni] Spiny Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus spinatus] Rock Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus intermedius] Bailey's Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus baileyi] Baja California Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus rudinoris] Long-tailed Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus formosus] Hispid Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus hispidus] Chihuahuan Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus eremicus] Desert Pocket Mouse [Chaetodipus penicillatus] Mexican Spiny Pocket Mouse [Liomys irroratus] Dark Kangaroo Mouse [Microdipodops megacephalus] Pale Kangaroo Mouse [Microdipodops pallidus] Merriam's Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys merriami] Tame and inqusitive in the Bow Willow Creek Campground (32.84132,-116.22548), in southwest Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, San Diego Co. San Joaquin Valley Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys nitratoides] Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys spectabilis] Desert Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys deserti] Texas Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys elator] California Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys californicus] We saw several of these very well in our headlamp beams while hiking at midnight on the paved Cave Loop that starts by the visitor center in Lava Beds National Monument. One sighting was at 41.70917, -121.51436, near the Garden Bridges parking lot. Heermann's Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys heermanni] Giant Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys ingens] Narrow-faced Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys venustus] Dulzura Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys simulans] Stephens's Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys stephensi] Agile Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys agilis] Chisel-toothed Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys microps] Panamint Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys panamintinus] Ord's Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys ordii] We saw a number of these while driving roads after dark in and near Goblin Valley State Park, Utah (park entrance at 38.57816,-110.70757). This park is off Rte.24, about 30 air miles SW its junction with I-70. Compact Kangaroo Rat [Dipodomys compactus] Beavers  American Beaver [Castor canadensis] It is difficult to give precise locations for beavers, because their habitat can change so quickly. However, there is always somewhere they can be seen along or near Highway 60 in southern Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, about four hours north of Toronto. Calling the visitor center (located at 45.58404,-78.35924) in advance should provide a few suggested locations. This park is also excellent for seeing Moose and Red Fox, and provides good chances of: Black Bear; Pine Marten in winter; and hearing Wolf in late summer (there is more info under the latter two species). Mice, Rats, and Voles  Round-tailed Muskrat [Neofiber alleni] Common Muskrat [Ondatra zibethicus] Eastern Woodrat [Neotoma floridana] Allegheny Woodrat [Neotoma magister] Mexican Woodrat [Neotoma mexicana] Southern Plains Woodrat [Neotoma micropus] White-throated Woodrat [Neotoma albigula] White-toothed Woodrat [Neotoma leucodon] Stephens's Woodrat [Neotoma stephensi] Bushy-tailed Woodrat [Neotoma cinerea] Dusky-footed Woodrat [Neotoma fuscipes] Big-eared Woodrat [Neotoma macrotis] Arizona Woodrat [Neotoma devia] Desert Woodrat [Neotoma lepida] Bryant's Woodrat [Neotoma bryanti] Northern Grasshopper Mouse [Onychomys leucogaster] Southern Grasshopper Mouse [Onychomys torridus] Chihuahuan Grasshopper Mouse [Onychomys arenicola] Coues's Oryzomys [Oryzomys couesi] Marsh Oryzomys [Oryzomys palustris] Northern Pygmy Mouse [Baiomys taylori] Fulvous Harvest Mouse [Reithrodontomys fulvescens] Eastern Harvest Mouse [Reithrodontomys humulis] Plains Harvest Mouse [Reithrodontomys montanus] Western Harvest Mouse [Reithrodontomys megalotis] Salt-Marsh Harvest Mouse [Reithrodontomys raviventris] White-footed Deermouse [Peromyscus leucopus] North American Deermouse [Peromyscus maniculatus] Northwestern Deermouse [Peromyscus keeni] Cotton Deermouse [Peromyscus gossypinus] Oldfield Deermouse [Peromyscus polionotus] Florida Deermouse [Peromyscus floridanus] California Deermouse [Peromyscus californicus] Canyon Deermouse [Peromyscus crinitus] Cactus Deermouse [Peromyscus eremicus] Northern Baja Deermouse [Peromyscus fraterculus] Merriam's Deermouse [Peromyscus merriami] Black-eared Deermouse [Peromyscus melanotis] Pinyon Deermouse [Peromyscus truei] Northern Rock Deermouse [Peromyscus nasutus] Saxicoline Deermouse [Peromyscus gratus] Texas Deermouse [Peromyscus attwateri] Brush Deermouse [Peromyscus boylii] White-ankled Deermouse [Peromyscus pectoralis] Golden Mouse [Ochrotomys nuttallii] Hispid Cotton Rat [Sigmodon hispidus] In the Lower Rio Grande Valley, this species often comes to areas where birds are fed and seed is placed or falls on the ground. We saw several individuals well at the Green Jay Blind (26.17683, -98.39002) in Bentsen State Park. It is also seen regularly at the feeders in Salineno. Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat [Sigmodon ochrognathus] Arizona Cotton Rat [Sigmodon arizonae] Tawny-bellied Cotton Rat [Sigmodon flaviventer] Red Tree Vole [Arborimus longicaudus] Sonoma Tree Vole [Arborimus pomo] White-footed Vole [Arborimus albipes] Western Red-backed Vole [Myodes californicus] Southern Red-backed Vole [Myodes gapperi] Northern Red-backed Vole [Myodes rutilus] Gray-tailed Vole [Microtus canicaudis] California Vole [Microtus californicus] These voles can sometimes be seen in numbers as they graze in short grass along the Kortum Trail (trailhead at Shell Beach, at 38.41824, -123.10410), in Sonoma Beach State Park, a couple miles south of Jenner, CA. This trail heads mostly north for about 1.3 miles to a rock outcrop, and there are some short spur trails off it as well. The best time to look for the voles is near dawn, before other hikers have walked the trails. Creeping Vole [Microtus oregoni] Townsend's Vole [Microtus townsendii] Montane Vole [Microtus montanus] Long-tailed Vole [Microtus longicaudus] North American Water Vole [Microtus richardsoni] Taiga Vole [Microtus xanthognathus] Insular Vole [Microtus abbreviatus] Singing Vole [Microtus miurus] This species can be heard giving long trills from the loop trail at Mile 100 (66.35817, -150.45833) on the Dalton Highway in Alaska (this is the Haul Road to Prudhoe Bay). Root Vole [Microtus oeconomus] Mexican Vole [Microtus mexicanus] Prairie Vole [Microtus ochrogaster] Beach Vole [Microtus breweri] Meadow Vole [Microtus pennsylvanicus] Woodland Vole [Microtus pinetorum] Rock Vole [Microtus chrotorrhinus] Sagebrush Vole [Lemmiscus curtatus] Eastern Heather Vole [Phenacomys ungava] Western Heather Vole [Phenacomys intermedius] Southern Bog Lemming [Synaptomys cooperi] Northern Bog Lemming [Synaptomys borealis] Nearctic Brown Lemming [Lemmus trimucronatus] Ungava Collared Lemming [Dicrostonyx hudsonius] Richardson's Collared Lemming [Dicrostonyx richardsoni] Nearctic Collared Lemming [Dicrostonyx groenlandicus] Nelson's Collared Lemming [Dicrostonyx nelsoni] Ogilvie Mountains Collared Lemming [Dicrostonyx nunatakensis] Unalaska Collared Lemming [Dicrostonyx unalascensis] Jumping Mice  Woodkland Jumping Mouse [Napaeozapus insignis] Meadow Jumping Mouse [Zapus hudsonius] Western Jumping Mouse [Zapus princeps] Pacific Jumping Mouse [Zapus trinotatus] New World Porcupines  North American Porcupine [Erethizon dorsatum] Carnivora  Dogs  Wolf [Canis lupus] There is disagreement regarding the taxonomy of wolves in the ABA Area. I find the arguments in favor of two species, Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and Eastern Wolf (C. lycaeon), the latter including Red Wolf, to be compelling. The best location to see and hear Eastern Wolf is Algonquin Provincial Park, about four hours north of Toronto, Ontario. Weekly public wolf howls are held each week in August, provided that the location of a creche near a park road is known. See American Beaver for information on Algonquin Provincial Park and other mammals found there. Coyote [Canis latrans] Swift Fox [Vulpes velox] Kit Fox [Vulpes macrotis] Can be seen both at night and during the day in the Carrizo Plain National Monument, San Luis Obispo Co., Calif. The KCL Campground entrance road (35.09250,-119.72993), Soda Lake Road, Panorama Road, and Elkhorn Road are all good areas to check. Nelson's Antelope Squiirel also occurs here. Arctic Fox [Vulpes lagopus] Birders are most likely to see this species on the Pribilof Islands or around Gambel, on St. Lawrence Island, both in the Bering Sea off Alaska. Red Fox [Vulpes vulpes] Gray Fox [Urocyon cinereoargentus] Island Gray Fox [Urocyon littoralis] Reliably seen in the campground at the east end of Santa Cruz Island, in Channel Islands NP, CA. The island is serviced from Ventura Harbor by Island Packers. The roughly one-hour passage can be good for Blue Whale and other cetaceans, as well as pelagic birds, in late summer. The campground (34.04836, -119.56203) is half a mile walk from the dock at Scorpion Cove Anchorage. The animals are easily seen in the campground area in the evening, night, or morning. Camping one night will essentially guarantee seeing the species, but it could be missed on just a day trip. Continuing inland on the trail through the campground, a smaller trail branches off at 34.04115,-119.57425 and enters Scorpion Canyon. Island Scrub-Jay can normally be found in this canyon, by hiking along the rocky bottom (no trail) and checking oaks. Bears  Black Bear [Ursus americanus] Brown Bear [Ursus arctos] Includes Grizzly and Kodiak Bears. Generally can be found roadside in the Canadian Rockies (particularly Banff NP and Jasper NP in Alberta). Likely to be seen in Denali NP, Alaska; see Caribou for details. Many additional mammal species can be found in these parks. Polar Bear [Ursus maritimus] Probably most easily seen on tundra buggy tours from Churchill, Manitoba. However, climate change threatens the species as a whole, and could change its utilization of this area. See also Narwhal. Eared Seals  California Sea Lion [Zalophus californianus] Guaranteed on pelagic trips from Monterey Harbor, as is Sea Otter (Harbor Seal is usually present also, though often not seen from the boats; look in the shallow waters west of Fisherman's Wharf). All three species can always be seen from the free parking lot on the west edge of Rte. 1, just north of the bridge at Moss Landing (36.81168,-121.78607). This is on Monterey Bay, halfway between Monterey and Santa Cruz. The sea lions congregate along the south edge of the parking lot. The seals rest on the sand NW of the parking lot, opposite the marina. The otters are often present in large groups, usually about due west of the parking lot, a little north of the north breakwater. Northern Fur-Seal [Callorhinus ursinus] Breeds in large numbers near St. Paul, in the Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska. This is the most common place for birders to see Red-legged Kittiwake and Red-faced Cormorant. Fur seals are seen on some pelagic trips off the West Coast, where they often can be identified at long range by the so-called jug handle pose, where the tail is bent up out of the water, and one flipper also out of the water, touching the tail to complete a closed oval. Guadalupe Fur Seal [Arctocephalus townsendi] Steller's Sea Lion [Eumetopias jubata] Can be seen on the rocks from the Sea Lion Lookout, north of Cape Arago, about three air miles SW of Charleston, OR (43.31251,-124.39561). California Sea Lion, Elephant Seal, and Harbor Seal all occur here as well, affording nice comparisons. Walrus  Walrus [Odobenus rosmarus] True Seals  Harp Seal [Pagophilus groenlandica] We saw these just east of Rigolet, Labrador (54.23467, -58.256827) in August. See Atlantic White-sided Dolphin for info on ship travel in this area. Ringed Seal [Pusa hispida] Readily seen on ice in late spring and early summer from Pond Inlet, northern Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada (72.69843,-77.95986). See Narwhal for more information. Ribbon Seal [Histriophoca fasciata] Hooded Seal [Cystophora cristata] Spotted seal [Phoca largha] Harbor Seal [Phoca vitulina] See California Sea Lion. Gray Seal [Halichoerus grypus] Can be seen on the "Bird Island Boat Tours" leaving from Big Bras D'Or, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia (launch property entrance at 46.28213, -60.41783). These trips are good for photographing seabirds as well, including Atlantic Puffin. Caribbean Monk Seal [Monachus tropicalis] Northern Elephant Seal [Mirounga angustirostris] Easily seen at any time of year from the Rte. 1 pullout at the Piedras Blancas Rookery, 7 miles NW of San Simeon, in California's central coast (35.66314,-121.25762). Bearded Seal [Erignathus barbatus] Raccoons, etc.  Ringtail [Bassariscus astutus] Raccoon [Procyon lotor] White-nosed Coati [Nasua narica] Weasels  American Mink [Neovison vison] North American River Otter [Lontra canadensis] Sea Otter [Enhydra lutris] See California Sea Lion. American Marten [Martes americana] Some winters a marten will visit the bird feeders at the Algonquin Provincvial Park Visitor Center (located at 45.58404,-78.35924). Call ahead to see if this species or other interesting mammals are being seen. See American Beaver for information on Algonquin Provincial Park and other mammals found there. Fisher [Martes pennanti] Wolverine [Gulo gulo] American Badger [Taxidea taxus] Least Weasel [Mustela nivalis] Ermine [Mustela erminea] Long-tailed Weasel [Mustela frenata] Black-footed Ferret [Mustela nigripes] Skunks  Western Spotted Skunk [Spilogale gracilis] Eastern Spotted Skunk [Spilogale putorius] American Hog-nosed Skunk [Conepatus leuconotus] Striped Skunk [Mephitis mephitis] Hooded Skunk [Mephitis macroura] The Chiricahua Mountains on southeast Arizona are good for this species, as well as the preceding two species. We have seen Hooded Skunk in the yard with feeders at Cave Creek Ranch (31.90443, -109.15596), just outside Portal, AZ. There are both dark and light morphs of Hooded Skunk; the former can be confused with Striped Skunk, and the latter with Hog-nosed Skunk, so care is needed in the identification. Cats  Bobcat [Lynx rufus] We see this species about one of every three days spent in the field in Panoche Valley and vicinity, San Benito Co., CA, a hotspot for wintering raptors, Mountain Bluebirds, and, some years, Mountain Plovers. The main junction in the valley is a T-intersection at 36.60685,-120.87669. From here, Little Panoche Road should be taken north at least as far as Mercey Hot Springs (7.6 miles), where there are generally roosting Long-eared Owls. Panoche Rd. runs 28 miles west to Rte. 25 in Paicines, and at least the ten miles closest to the intersection should be checked. Panoche Rd runs east for 26 miles to I-5; again, at least the ten miles closest to the intersection should be covered. Finally, New Idria Rd. departs Panoche Rd. 3.1 miles east of the intersection, and heads southeast turning southwest; this should be followed for at least 3.8 miles to a convenient pull-out in Griswold Canyon. Canadian Lynx [Lynx canadensis] Margay [Leopardus wiedii] Ocelot [Leopardus pardalis] Cougar [Puma concolor] Although I know of no reliable place to see this species, as it is one of high interest, I would at least mention the three places birders frequently visit where I believe sightings are much the most likely: the Chiricahua Mountains of southeast Arizona; Big Bend NP in west Texas; and the Everglades in south Florida. Jaguarundi [Puma yagouaroundi] Jaguar [Panthera onca] Cetacea  Gray Whale  Gray Whale [Eschrichtius robustus] This species breeds in coastal lagoons in Baja, and feeds in the Bering Sea. It is best seen during northbound migration because females with young tend to hug the coast. Monterey Bay in central Californai is one reliable location; they are usually present from December to May, with the peak times being mid-January (southbound) and mid-March (northbound). Monterey Bay is the premier pelagic bird and marine mammal location on the west coast, at least south of the Bering Sea. A deep submaarine canyon feeds into the bay, bringing in some species that normally stay far offshore. Short whale-watching trips (3 - 4 hours) are available from multiple companies, including Monterey Bay Whale Watch, leaving from Fisherman's Wharf, Monterey, CA (36.60482,-121.89217). A wider variety of cetaceans can be seen on longer trips that go farther offshore for birds. Two companies that run such trips are Monerey Seabirds, leaving from the Monterey Bay Whale Watch building, and Shearwater Journeys, departing from the same wharf. Rorquals  Humpback Whale [Megaptera novaeangliae] Usually present in Monetrey Bay from May to November, though numbers fluctuate from year to year. See Gray Whale for details on Monterey Bay. Blue Whale [Balaenopterus musculus] One of the best places in the world to see this species is in the St. Lawrence River, nearer the Quebec (north) shore. Principally from August through fall, numbers travel upriver to an area of strong mixing. Here they can be seen from a boat, zodiac (inflatable), or land, and because the water is so shallow, they do not need to dive deeply, and so are visible at the surface much of the time. Currently, trips leave several piers between Baie Ste. Catherine and Escoumins. Well-rated zodiac trips leave from Bergeronnes, Quebec, which is close to the prime area (Croisières Essipit: http://www.essipit.com/eng/). Zodiac trips are a little more difficult physically but are exciting and often get closer to whales. A second company, having both boats and zodiacs, is the Dafour Group in Tadoussac, Quebec (http://www.dufour.ca/en/excursions/list/). There is a Marine Discovery Center in Escoumins, Quebec, which might provide more info. A land vantage point that has been created at Cap de Bon Desir (48.27173,-69.47020) may be worth a look. Beluga Whale can be seen nearby; see under that species. Fin, Minke, and Humpback Whales are also seen regularly. Fin Whale [Balaenoptera physalus] The ferry from St. Barbe, Newfoundland (51.20460,-56.77560) to Blanc Sablon, Quebec (51.41617,-57.15296), crosses the Strait of Belle Isle, which is noted for its marine mammals. We had many Fin Whales on our crossing. Bryde's Whale [Balaenoptera edeni] Sei Whale [Balaenoptera borealis] Common Minke Whale [Balaenoptera acutarostrata] Right Whales  Bowhead [Balaena mysticetus] North Atlantic Right Whale [Eubalaena glacialis] North Pacific Right Whale [Eubalaena japonica] Beluga and Narwhal  Narwhal [Monodon monoceros] Can be seen in late spring and early summer from Pond Inlet, northern Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada (72.69843,-77.95986). Ice conditions vary considerably, and global warning is probably changing average conditions, but in most years, a snowmobile-drawn sledge can be taken out onto the ice in the strait between Baffin and Bylot Islands, to the floe edge, where Narwhal and Polar Bear are reasonably likely. Ringed Seal is common on ice, not just at the floe edge. Birds in this area include breeding Common Ringed Plover, Dovekie, and Gyrfalcon. Beluga [Delphinapterus leucas] A disjunct population of this species conveniently occurs in the St. Lawrence and Saguenay Rivers. Pointe Noire, at the confluence of these two rives, near Baie Ste. Catherine, Quebec, provides a good vanatge point from which to see them (48.12300, -69.71917). Blue Whale occurs nearby; see under that species. Dolphins  Risso's Dolphin [Grampus griseus] Frequently seen in Monterey Bay; present year-round. See Gray Whale for details on Monterey Bay. Long-finned Pilot Whale [Globicephala melas] We saw this in late June on the ferry from North Sydney, Nova Scotia (46.21149,-60.24471) to Argentia, Newfoundland (47.29007,-53.99293). The Argentia end of the route is good for Manx Shearwater. Short-finned Pilot Whale [Globicephala macrorhynchus] These are seen regularly on Brian Patteson's pelagic birding trips leaving from the Outer Banks of North Carolina. He has departures both from Hatteras, NC and Wanchese, NC; the latter may be better for this species. Pygmy Killer Whale [Feresa attenuata] Melon-headed Whale [Peponocephala electra] Killer Whale [Orcinus orca] This species is nearly guaranteed from March to October on whale-watching trips leaving San Juan Island, WA (48.53539,-123.01554), which is between the mainland and Vancouver Island. False Killer Whale [Pseudorca crassidens] Rough-toothed Dolphin [Steno bredanensis] Bottlenose Dolphin [Tursiops truncatus] Atlantic Spotted Dolphin [Stenella frontalis] We have seen this in May on a boat trip from Key West, FL (24.56244,-81.79921) to Dry Tortugas NP, (24.62734,-82.87213). Pantropical Spotted Dolphin [Stenella attenuata] Spinner Dolphin [Stenella longirostris] Clymeme Dolphin [Stenella clymene] Striped Dolphin [Stenella coeruleoalba] Northern Right Whale Dolphin [Lissodelphis borealis] These are regularly seen but not common in Monterey Bay. See Gray Whale for details on Monterey Bay. Short-beaked Common Dolphin [Delphinus delphis] Long-beaked Common Dolphin [Delphinus capensis] Pacific White-sided Dolphin [Lagenorhynchus obliquidens] Commonly seen in Monterey Bay; present year-round. See Gray Whale for details on Monterey Bay. Atlantic White-sided Dolphin [Lagenorhynchus acutus] We saw this in August in southeast Batteau Harbor, Labrador (53.42633, -55.81867), from the ferry that ran from Lewisporte, Newfoundland to Goose Bay, Labrador. Although this exact route has been discontinued, as of 2015, Nunatsiavut Marine is running a longer route from Lewisporte to Nain, Labrador, and visiting a number of locations on the Labrador coast. On an August trip that closely approximated this new route (by taking the ferry and a mail boat), we saw Atlantic White-sided and White-beaked Dolphins; Harp, Ringed, and Harbor Seals; and Humpack, Minke, and Killer Whales. White-beaked Dolphin [Lagenorhynchus albirostris] We saw this in August southeast of Huntington Island (53.77917, -56.81817), near Cartwright, Labrador. See Atlantic White-sided Dolphin for info on ship travel in this area. Fraser's Dolphin [Lagenodelphis hosei] Porpoises  Harbor Porpoise [Phocoena phocoena] Though widespread and reasonably common in shallow northern and central on-shore waters, these animals are small, don't occur in large groups, and do not approach boats, so they are not that easy to see. They are present year-round in Monterey Bay but are missed on most trips. See Gray Whale for details on Monterey Bay. Dall Porpoise [Phocoenoides dalli] A spectacular species seen year-round in Monterey Bay, though only on a fraction of trips. See Gray Whale for details on Monterey Bay. Beaked Whales  Northern Bottlenose Whale [Hyperoodon ampullatus] Baird's Beaked Whale [Berardius bairdii] Cuvier's Beaked Whale [Ziphius cavirostris] These are seen regularly on Brian Patteson's summer and fall pelagic birding trips leaving from Hatteras village on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, though it can take a number of trips to connect with one. True's Beaked Whale [Mesoplodon mirus] Stejneger's Beaked Whale [Mesoplodon stejnegeri] Sowerby's Beaked Whale [Mesoplodon bidens] Gingko-toothed Beaked Whale [Mesoplodon ginkgodens] Gervais' Beaked Whale [Mesoplodon europaeus] Blainville's Beaked Whale [Mesoplodon densirostris] Hector's Beaked Whale [Mesoplodon perrini] Hubb's Beaked Whale [Mesoplodon carlhubbsi] Pygmy Beaked Whale [Mesoplodon peruvianus] Pygmy Sperm Whales  Dwarf Sperm Whale [Kogia sima] Pygmy Sperm Whale [Kogia breviceps] Sperm Whales  Sperm Whale [Physeter catodon] Seen infrequently on Brian Patteson's summer and fall pelagic birding trips leaving from Hatteras village on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Sirenia  Manatees  West Indian Manatee [Trichechus manatus] The best manatee experience is swimming with them in the Homosassa River near Homosassa Springs, on the Gulf Coast of Florida, about an hour and a half north of Tampa. Manatees are present year-round but especially common in winter. SnorkelWithManatees.com is highly rated. One prime area is centered near 28.79972, -82.59312. Artiodactyla  Peccaries  Collared Peccary [Pecari tajacu] Can be seen in a number of birding locations in Texas, including Big Bend NP, Bentsen SP, and Aransas NWR. Deer  Caribou [Rangifer tarandus] Generally easily seen in Denali NP, Alaska, if the tour bus is taken at least to Eielson Visitor Center, and preferably to Wonder Lake (a 12-hour round trip). On such a trip we saw this species, Gray Wolf, Grizzly Bear, Dall Sheep, Moose, Beaver, Arctic Ground Squirrel, and Red Fox. All these species are likely except Gray Wolf, which we were lucky to see. Arctic Warbler occurs near the Visitor Center, but there may not be time to see it and still catch a bus going as far as Wonder Lake. Elk [Cervus elaphus] Readily seen in the Canadian Rockies; Yellowstone NP, WY; and Rocky Mountain NP, CO. The magnificant roosevelti subspecies can reliably be seen well in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, around the campground (41.35882,-124.02963) and along the coastal portion of Gold Bluffs Beach Road (which leaves Rte. 101 at 41.32114,-124.03917). Moose [Alces alces] Readily seen in Yellowstone NP, WY, and many of the Canadian parks. In the east, Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario (see American Beaver) is particularly good, especially in spring, when an early morning drive along Rte. 60 and its side roads is very likely to be successful. Although abundant in parts of Newfoundland, they are introduced there. Mule Deer [Odocoileus hemionus] White-tailed Deer [Odocoileus virginianus] Pronghorn  Pronghorn [Antilocapra americana] Sheep, Goats, etc.  Mountain Goat [Oreamnos americanus] Glacier NP, MT is especially good for this species. The Hidden Lake Pass area (48.68736, -113.74168), 1.5 trail miles one-way with 500' elevation gain from the Logan Pass Visitor Center, along the Going-to-the-Sun Road, is also good for Hoary Marmot, Pika, and White-tailed Ptarmigan (be sure to check *under* the boardwalk). In the northeastern section of the park, near Many Glacier, the cliffs opposite Swiftcurrent Lake (48.79814, -113.66777) are another fine location. The Many Glacier Road, in fall, is also excellent for Grizzly Bear, Black Bear, and Bighorn. Bighorn Sheep [Ovis canadensis] Dall's Sheep [Ovis dalli] Readily seen in Denali NP, Alaska; see Caribou for more information. A very distinctive and beautiful subspecies, the Stone Sheep, which is slate gray instead of white, can be seen in Stone Mountain Provincial Park, British Columbia, on the Alcan Highway. We saw this species at 58.64967, -124.74583. American Bison [Bison bison] Easily seen in Yellowstone NP, WY. Subspecies athabascae, Wood Buffalo, appropriately occurs in Wood Buffalo NP, Northwest Territories. We saw them on Peace Point Road (called Pine Lake Road in Google Maps), near Pine Lake (59.56367, -112.26800). Whooping Cranes nest in this park, but are not accessible. Muskox [Ovibos moschatus] The frequently seen animals on the Seward Peninsula, north of Nome, Alaska, are introduced. Muskox are native only in Canada and Greenland.